Most of the cells of the retina are neurons. They are either transducers (the rods and cones), integrators (bipolar and horizontal cells) or the terminal sensory neurons of the chain (the ganglion cells). As is the case with virtually all neurons, they are so highly specialized as to be incapable of maintaining themselves without the assistance of neuroglia or at least the equivalent.
The Müller cells forming the inner limiting "membrane" are such a glia-like element. These elongated cells run from the outer limiting "membrane" to the inner limiting "membrane." At the outer ends they are fused to the "waists" of the rod and cone cells; at the inner end to each other. The long bodies of the Müller cells "fill in the spaces" among the various neural elements between the two "membranes" as well; thus fulfilling another form of supporting function typical of glial cells. They are very difficult to visualize in light microscopic preparations without special staining routines.
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